How to Become a Judge in India


Being a judge is a prestigious and respected position in the Indian legal system. Judges play a crucial role in upholding justice and ensuring the rule of law. If you aspire to become a judge in India, there are certain steps and qualifications you need to fulfill. In this article, we will explore the path to becoming a judge and the requirements involved.

Educational Qualifications

The first step towards becoming a judge in India is to acquire the necessary educational qualifications. To be eligible for appointment as a judge, one must possess a law degree from a recognized university. A Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree is the minimum requirement. However, many aspiring judges pursue a Master of Laws (LLM) degree to enhance their knowledge and specialization in a specific area of law.

It is important to note that the eligibility criteria may vary depending on the level of the judiciary. For example, to become a judge in the lower judiciary, a candidate must have a minimum of three years of practice as an advocate. On the other hand, to be appointed as a judge in the higher judiciary, such as the High Court or the Supreme Court, a candidate must have extensive experience as a lawyer or a judge.

Judicial Services Examination

After completing the required educational qualifications, aspiring judges need to appear for the Judicial Services Examination. This examination is conducted by the respective state public service commissions or the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) for appointment to the lower judiciary and higher judiciary, respectively.

The Judicial Services Examination consists of multiple stages, including a preliminary examination, a main examination, and a viva voce (oral) examination. The preliminary examination tests the candidate’s knowledge of general law, while the main examination assesses their understanding of substantive and procedural laws. The viva voce examination evaluates the candidate’s personality, communication skills, and legal acumen.

Experience as an Advocate

Prior experience as an advocate is an essential requirement for becoming a judge in India. Aspiring judges must have a minimum number of years of practice as an advocate, which varies depending on the level of the judiciary. This experience helps in developing a deep understanding of the legal system, courtroom procedures, and the practical aspects of law.

During their practice as advocates, aspiring judges gain valuable insights into the legal profession, build a network of contacts, and develop their advocacy skills. This experience is crucial for judges as they are responsible for interpreting and applying the law to ensure justice is served.

Appointment and Selection Process

The appointment and selection process for judges in India is rigorous and transparent. The selection is based on merit and involves various stages to ensure the suitability and competence of the candidates.

For the lower judiciary, the state public service commissions conduct the selection process. The candidates are shortlisted based on their performance in the Judicial Services Examination and undergo a personal interview. The final selection is made based on the candidate’s overall performance.

For the higher judiciary, the selection process is conducted by the Supreme Court collegium or the High Court collegium, depending on the level of appointment. The collegium consists of a group of senior judges who evaluate the candidates based on their experience, integrity, and legal knowledge. The collegium’s recommendations are then sent to the President of India for approval.

Continuing Education and Training

Once appointed as a judge, the learning journey does not end. Judges are expected to continuously update their knowledge and skills to keep up with the evolving legal landscape. They attend various training programs, workshops, and seminars to enhance their understanding of new laws, legal precedents, and judicial practices.

Additionally, judges also benefit from interacting with their peers and senior judges, discussing complex legal issues, and seeking guidance when needed. This collaborative environment helps in fostering a culture of learning and ensures the delivery of fair and impartial judgments.


Becoming a judge in India requires a combination of educational qualifications, experience as an advocate, and successfully clearing the Judicial Services Examination. The path to becoming a judge is challenging but rewarding. Judges play a vital role in upholding justice and maintaining the rule of law. By following the necessary steps and fulfilling the requirements, aspiring individuals can contribute to the Indian legal system and make a positive impact on society.


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